Bulugh Al-Maram: Chapter 15

كتاب العتق

Emancipation

Bulug Al-Maram 15.1
Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“Any Muslim, who emancipates another Muslim man, Allah will set free from Hell Fire an organ of his body, for every organ of the other’s (i.e. from the body of the emancipated person ).” Agreed upon.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{
"أَيُّمَا امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ أَعْتَقَ اِمْرَأً مُسْلِماً, اِسْتَنْقَذ َ 1‏ اَللَّهُ بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهُ عُضْوًا مِنْهُ مِنَ النَّارِ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.2
At-Tirmidhi transmitted on the authority of Abu Umamah (RAA), “The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“Any Muslim man, who emancipates two Muslim women, they will be his release from Hell Fire.” At-Tirmidhi graded it as Sahih.
وَلِلتِّرْمِذِيِّ وَصَحَّحَهُ; عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ: {
"وَأَيُّمَا امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ أَعْتَقَ اِمْرَأَتَيْنِ مُسْلِمَتَيْنِ, كَانَتَا فِكَاكَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.3
Abu Dawud transmitted on the authority of Ka’b bin Murrah (RAA), “The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“Any Muslim woman, who emancipates another Muslim woman, she will be her release from Hell Fire.”
وَلِأَبِي دَاوُدَ: مِنْ حَدِيثِ كَعْبِ بْنِ مُرَّةَ: { "وَأَيُّمَا اِمْرَأَةٍ أَعْتَقَتْ اِمْرَأَةً مُسْلِمَةً, كَانَتْ فِكَاكَهَا مِنْ اَلنَّارِ } 1‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.4
Abu Dharr (RAA) narrated, I asked the Messenger of Allah (PbUH) ‘Which action is the most excellent?’ He replied, “Faith in Allah and Jihad in His Cause.” I then asked, ‘Which slaves are the most excellent (for the purpose of emancipating them)’ and he replied, “Those whose prices are the highest and are the most valuable to their owners.” Agreed upon.
وَعَنْ أَبِي ذَرٍّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- { قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-أَيُّ اَلْعَمَلِ أَفْضَلُ? قَالَ: "إِيمَانٌ بِاَللَّهِ, وَجِهَادٌ فِي سَبِيلِهِ" .‏ قُلْتُ: فَأَيُّ اَلرِّقَابِ أَفْضَلُ? قَالَ: " أَعْلَاهَ ا 1‏ ثَمَنًا, وَأَنْفَسُهَا عِنْدَ أَهْلِهَا" } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ" .‏ 2‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.5
Ibn 'Umar (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“Anyone who emancipates his share in a slave and has enough money to pay the full price for him, a fair price for the slave should be fixed. His partners should be given their shares, and the slave should thus be emancipated. Otherwise he is emancipated only to the extent of the first man’s share.” Agreed upon,
وَعَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{
"مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ, فَكَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَ اَلْعَبْدِ, قُوِّمَ قِيمَةَ عَدْلٍ, فَأَعْطَى شُرَكَاءَهُ حِصَصَهُمْ, وَعَتَقَ عَلَيْهِ اَلْعَبْدُ, وَإِلَّا فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.6
Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“Otherwise he will be required to work to pay for his freedom, but he must not be overburdened.” Agreed upon.
وَلَهُمَا: عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- {
"وَإِلَّا قُوِّمَ عَلَيْهِ, وَاسْتُسْعِيَ غَيْرَ مَشْقُوقٍ عَلَيْهِ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.7
Abu Hurairah (RAA), narrated that The Messenger of Allah said, “A son cannot ever repay his parents what he owes them, unless he finds them in slavery, then buys them and emancipates them.” Related by Muslim.
وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{
" لَا يَجْزِي وَلَدٌ وَالِدَهُ, إِلَّا أَنْ يَجِدَهُ مَمْلُوكًا فَيُعْتِقَهُ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.8
Samurah bin Jundub (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“Whoever obtains possession of a relative, who is next of kin, that person becomes free.” Related by Ahmad and the four Imams. Some scholars are of the opinion that it is Mawquf (not connected to the Prophet.)
وَعَنْ سَمُرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: {
"مَنْ مَلَكَ ذَا رَحِمٍ مَحْرَمٍ, فَهُوَ حُرٌّ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.9
’Imran bin Husain (RAA) narrated, ‘A man who had no other property emancipated six of his slaves at the time of his death. Allah’s Messenger (PbUH)sent for them, and after dividing them into three groups, he cast lots among them, set two of them free and kept four in slavery, and spoke very harshly to the man (who emancipated them).’ Related by Muslim.
وَعَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا; { أَنَّ رَجُلاً أَعْتَقَ سِتَّةً مَمْلُوكِينَ لَهُ, عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ, لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرَهُمْ, فَدَعَا بِهِمْ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-فَجَزَّأَهُمْ أَثْلَاثًا, ثُمَّ أَقْرَعَ بَيْنَهُمْ, فَأَعْتَقَ اِثْنَيْنِ, وَأَرَقَّ أَرْبَعَةً, وَقَالَ لَهُ قَوْلاً شَدِيدًا } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِم ٌ 1‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.10
Safinah (RAA) narrated, ‘I was a slave of Umm Salamah and she said, ‘I shall emancipate you, but on the condition that you serve Allah’s Messenger (PbUH) as long as you live.’ Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim.
وَعَنْ سَفِينَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- { قَالَ: كُنْتُ مَمْلُوكًا لِأُمِّ سَلَمَةَ فَقَالَتْ: أُعْتِقُكَ, وَأَشْتَرِطُ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَخْدِمَ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-مَا عِشْتَ } رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَالنَّسَائِيُّ, وَالْحَاكِم ُ 1‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.11
'A’ishah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“Wala’ is (legally) for the manumitter.” Agreed upon. It is part of a long Hadith (refer to hadith no. 811).
وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا; أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: {
"إِنَّمَا اَلْوَلَاءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.12
Ibn 'Umar (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“The Wala’ (of a manumitted slave) is considered as one’s lineage, not to be sold or donated (refer to hadith no. 984).” Related by Ash-Shafi’i. Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih. It is also related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim with different wording
وَعَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ " اَلْوَلَاءُ لُحْمَةٌ كَلُحْمَةِ اَلنَّسَبِ, لَا يُبَاعُ وَلَا يُوهَبُ" } رَوَاهُ اَلشَّافِعِيُّ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ حِبَّانَ, وَالْحَاكِم ُ 1‏ وَأَصْلُهُ فِي "اَلصَّحِيحَيْنِ" بِغَيْرِ هَذَا اَللَّفْظ ِ 2‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.13
Jabir bin ·Abdullah (RAA) narrated that A man from the Ansar declared that his slave lad would be free after his death (would be Mudabbar), yet he had no other property. When the Prophet heard of that he said, “Who will buy him from me?” And Nu'aim bin 'Abdullah bought him for eight hundred Dirhams. Agreed upon. In a narration by Al-Bukhari:
“The man became needy,’ (so the Prophet took the slave and said...).’ A version by An-Nasa’i says, “The man had a debt, so the Prophet sold the slave for eight hundred Dirhams and gave him the money and said, “Pay off your debt.”
عَنْ جَابِرٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- { أَنَّ رَجُلًا مِنْ اَلْأَنْصَارِ أَعْتَقَ غُلَامًا لَهُ عَنْ دُبُرٍ, لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُ, فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-.‏ فَقَالَ: "مَنْ يَشْتَرِيهِ مِنِّي?" فَاشْتَرَاهُ نُعَيْمُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اَللَّهِ بِثَمَانِمَائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْه ِ 1‏ .‏ وَفِي لَفْظٍ لِلْبُخَارِيِّ: فَاحْتَاج َ 2‏ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لِلنَّسَائِيِّ: { وَكَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ, فَبَاعَهُ بِثَمَانِمَائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ, فَأَعْطَاهُ وَقَالَ: " اِقْضِ دَيْنَكَ" } 3‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.14
'Amro bin Shu’aib narrated on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather (RAA), That the Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“A slave who entered into an agreement to buy his freedom is still a slave as long as a Dirham of the agreed price remains to be paid.” Related by Abu Dawud with a good chain of narrators. The full hadith is related by Ahmad and the three Imams. Al-Hakim graded it to be Sahih.
وَعَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ, عَنْ أَبِيهِ, عَنْ جَدِّهِ, عَنْ اَلنَّبِيِّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ قَالَ:
" اَلْمُكَاتَبُ عَبْدٌ مَا بَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ مُكَاتَبَتِهِ دِرْهَمٌ"
‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.15
Umm Salamah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“When a slave of one of your women has made an agreement to pay for his freedom (i.e. he is a Mukatib) and can pay the full price, she must veil herself from him.” Related by Ahmad and the four Imams. At-Tirmidhi graded it as Sahih.
وَعَنْ أَُمِّ سَلَمَةَ ‏-رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا‏- قَالَتْ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ إِذَا كَانَ لِإِحْدَاكُنَّ مُكَاتَبٌ, وَكَانَ عِنْدَهُ مَا يُؤَدِّي, فَلْتَحْتَجِبْ مِنْهُ } رَوَاهُ اَلْخَمْسَة ُ 1‏ وَصَحَّحَهُ اَلتِّرْمِذِيّ ُ 2‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.16
Ibn ’Abbas (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“The Diyah (Blood money) of a slave who had made an agreement to buy his freedom (Mukatib) and had been killed, is paid at the rate paid for a free man (as a Diyah) as much as he has paid of the amount agreed upon, and at the rate paid for a slave as the remainder is concerned.” Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Au-Nasa’i.
وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏-رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا‏- أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { يُودَى اَلْمُكَاتَبُ بِقَدْرِ مَا عَتَقَ مِنْهُ دِيَةَ اَلْحُرِّ, وَبِقَدْرِ مَا رَقَّ مِنْهُ دِيَةَ اَلْعَبْدِ } رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَالنَّسَائِيّ ُ 1‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.17
’Amro bin al-Harith, the brother of Juwairiyah the mother of Believers (the wife of the Prophet (PbUH)) narrated, ‘When Allah’s Messenger (PbUH) died, he did not leave a Dinar or a Dirham, a slave or a slave-woman, or anything but his white she-mule, his weapons and a piece of land which he appointed as Sadaqah.’ Related by Al-Bukhari.
وَعَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ اَلْحَارِثِ‏- أَخِي جُوَيْرِيَةَ أُمِّ اَلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ‏-رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا‏- قَالَ: { مَا تَرَكَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ دِرْهَمًا, وَلَا دِينَارًا, وَلَا عَبْدًا, وَلَا أَمَةً, وَلَا شَيْئًا, إِلَّا بَغْلَتَهُ اَلْبَيْضَاءَ, وَسِلَاحَهُ, وَأَرْضًا جَعَلَهَا صَدَقَةً } رَوَاهُ اَلْبُخَارِيّ ُ 1‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.18
Ibn ’Abbas (RAA) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (PbUH) said:
“When a man’s slave-woman bears him a child she becomes free at his death.” Related by Ibn Majah and Al-Hakim with a weak chain of narrators.
وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ أَيُّمَا أَمَةٍ وَلَدَتْ مِنْ سَيِّدِهَا, فَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ } أَخْرَجَهُ اِبْنُ مَاجَهْ, وَالْحَاكِمُ بِإِسْنَادٍ ضَعِيف ٍ 1‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.19
وَرَجَّحَ جَمَاعَةٌ وَقْفَهُ عَلَى عُمَرَ > 1‏ 2‏ .‏
Bulug Al-Maram 15.20
Sahl bin Hunaif (RAA) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (PbUH) said:
“He who assists a Mujahid for Allah’s sake, a debtor who is in distress (being unable to pay his debt) or a slave who had made an agreement to buy his freedom, Allah will shade him, with His Shade, on the Day when there will be no shade but His.” Related by Ahmad and Al- Hakim graded it as Sahih.
وَعَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ حُنَيْفٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { مَنْ أَعَانَ مُجَاهِدًا فِي سَبِيلِ اَللَّهِ, أَوْ غَارِمًا فِي عُسْرَتِهِ, أَوْ مُكَاتَبًا فِي رَقَبَتِهِ, أَظَلَّهُ اَللَّهُ يَوْمَ لَا ظِلَّ إِلَّا ظِلُّهُ } رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اَلْحَاكِم ُ 1‏ .‏